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A modification of the procedure of ROS detection in live cells adapted from Esposti and McLennan method (1998) was performed; it revealed that both MSE and MIT at high doses did not generate ROS. Best Treatment For Opiate Withdrawal this result suggests that the mitochondria are still functioning normally or if the MSE and MIT could cause membrane opening or change the membrane permeability the DCFH-DA dye could leak out from cells and thus not allowing ROS to be detected. buy kratom direct albrightsville Interesting observations made at the end of 1 hr incubations of the cells informed that the control cells for both MSE and MIT treated experiments become Best Treatment For Opiate Withdrawal rounded and floating implying that the cells are probably dying perhaps due to lack of nutrient. Yet co-treatment of cells with NAC prevented this toxicity particularly with MSE. These observations give information that there are possibly other chemicals present in the MSE that could have together with NAC maintain the cell growth in media that lack nutrients thereby permitting the cells to survive longer. Tchounwou 2007) and also plays an important role in the production of glutathione to help prevent oxidative stress (De Vries and De Flora 1993).

MSE only Tukey-Kramer post test. To further confirm the outcome seen in the Alamar blue assay experiments (Fig. DED and ATZ was employed.

The inhibitors used were caspase 3 inhibitor caspase 8 inhibitor caspase 9 inhibitor general caspase inhibitor negative control and doxorubicin as a positive control ( as described in section 5. The positive control doxorubicin confirmed the assay works by showing a highly significant response for apoptosis. Thus this finding supported the notion that there was no involvement of caspase executioner nor caspase initiator activation in cell death induced by high dose MSE. C o N ntr eg ol a (E M tive tO C M SE co H) a C sp. M E C .

The control and low dose groups however did express p21 protein consistent with the p53 expression. In the parallel experiment with MIT again p21 was expressed in a time-dependant manner that correlated with p53 expression. MIT exerts weaker toxicity effects compared to MSE.

These are usually more expensive but you will need less. It is difficult to say which is best. The dosage depends very much on

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the strength of the kratom used.

These effects are noticeable after 5 to 10 minutes and can last for several hours. Kratom contains a number of active components so-called alkaloids of which mitragynine is believed to be responsible for most of its effects. Mitragynine is an opioid agonist meaning that it has an affinity for the opioid receptors in your brain.

Dead Best Treatment For Opiate Withdrawal cell discrimination with 7-Amino-Actinomycin D in combinations with dual color immunofluorescence in isngle laser flow cytometry. UCSF finding could lead to long-sought alternative to morphine. The alkaloids of Mitragyna: with special reference to those of Mitragyna buy kratom arizona gerrardstown speciosa Korth. UNODC Bulletin on Narcotics 41-55. Measurement of protein using Best Treatment For Opiate Withdrawal bicinchoninic acid.

However it appears that there was no involvement of the cell cycle protein p53 and the p21 pathway with MSE. This was not the case with MIT. Dose dependant lost of p53 and p21 observed at the same concentrations causing cell cycle arrest remains unexplained.

In parallel caspase inhibitors were employed to confirm the outcome of the former assays. The caspase-8 and caspase-9 colorimetric assays purchased from Invitrogen U. IETD and LEHD respectively. These assays were carried out according to manufacturer instructions. MSE for 4 hr and 24 hr incubation time points. After incubation the cells were harvested by routine trypsinisation procedure as described in chapter 2 section Best Treatment For Opiate Withdrawal 2.

Discussion Mitragyna speciosa Korth (Kratom) leaves have been used by humans for decades. There are no reports of increased cancer associated with consumption of Kratom leaves although such associations have never been examined in a proper controlled study. Neither is kratom mit grapefruit allen park there any information available concerning the genotoxic potential of Kratom leaves.

First we are Kratom Connoisseurs through and through here. I have personally been working with this amazing plant for a number of years now and have likely tried just about every Kratom product there is out there. Maeng da Kratom leaf.

Carcinogenesis 17: 19962002.

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Assessment of cell viability and histochemical methods in apoptosis. In: Apoptosis in neurobiology (Yusuf A. PPA13 1M1 Radin N. Apoptotic death by ceramide: will the real killer please stand up? Med.

Herbal-x is located in the USA. Also in this category. USA Shipping takes 5-10 days. Store owners can order from our wholesale website by Clicking the wholesale link to the left. Copyright 2009-2012 www. All rights reserved.

Food and Chemical Toxicology 40: 25-31. Lost in transcription: p21 repression mechanisms and consequences. Cancer Research 65:3980-3985. Targeting apoptosis pathways in cancer therapy. CA Cancer J Clin.

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Vic give your readers a warning that there has been a reported case of seizure premium malaysian kratom experience blue earth when combining kratom and modafinil. Feel free to google it. Personally I find using Kratom on top of Modafinil to work very very well.

White vein kratom seem to be very popular with noted. lucky kratom liquid effects Best Treatment For Opiate Withdrawal very high quality red vein Indo kratom powder super-finely. We made our own all natural extract by blending pure. New Gold Standard Kratom. From the original creator and formulator of Gold Reserve New.

Try it blended with our Green Indo kratom. Green Indo is a classic strain of wildcrafted Indonesian kratom with an aroma typical of green leaf kratom trees. Try it blended with our Red Indo kratom. White vein kratom has the full range of kratom alkaloids in some users causing a noted euphoriating stimulating aroma. We have received a lot of requests for a strain of white vein kratom and are proud to stock this high quality affordably priced white vein Indonesian strain of kratom. White vein kratom seem to be very popular with Best Treatment For Opiate Withdrawal noted stimulating uplifting characteristics. This variety with Thai-genetics provides a maeng da kratom effect nice complement to our Indonesian white vein kratom and our other strains.

We test the alkaloid levels of the kratom to ensure a consistent high quality. We never have a bad Best Treatment For Opiate Withdrawal batch of Bali. Our Maeng Da Kratom has unmatched potency! Maeng Da has been historically used for various purposes but many find its energizing yet still relaxing properties to be most the unique and beneficial. Red Vein Thai and here it is. This one is shown to be exceptionally high quality in laboratory testing. Super Green Malaysian is a unique incredibly finely powdered variation of Malaysian Kratm.

Senna is an herb derived from a plant of the same name. It contains a compound called anthraquinones which is a laxative. But it really depends what you need it for.

I became an IV drug user. Not long after that I found myself with a felony drug charge and on the verge of homelessness. My tolerance went way up on this right away. I was ingesting about 2 oz per week. Microwaving with vodka or just eating by the tablespoon. I started raging pretty hard at about 8 months.

I mean who cares to track your package of modafinil. Haha this Kratom shit is making you a softie Vic. There you go helping around every single

commenter while answering in a nice and kind tone regardless of senselessness of the question.

Edit the auto suggestion post to have your paragraphs around 2-3 sentences each. Good 6 pack. Extra white space makes you look like an amateur. Kill that extra white space. Oh damn thanks a lot. No idea never taken a drug test in my life.

Sorry our images are copyrighted.It is an unnatural product that has a lot of potentially terrible problems waiting for you at the end of the road. Stick to purely natural products from vendors like Kratom Wellness and buy kratom eugene oregon others of a similar reputation. Your name will what is green kratom be included in the page history but not be listed as the last person to modify the answer. Your singles have taken the world by storm and landed on some top pop music charts around the globe. You can purchase artificial vanilla extract from pretty much any grocery store – look in the baking goods aisle by the spices. Kratom is only as addictive as Coffee or Caffeine. It is no where on the same levels as opiates or even nicotine.

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Decent article but your dosages are extremely misleading. I think it would be helpful to someone Best Treatment Centers For Opiate Addiction willing to try kratom for you to changes these dosages and make 15g the high end of the scale. If you need 50g to feel anything that means that these vendors are selling you bunk product.

Our botany experts and researchers have searched the jungles of Southeast Asia and have isolated only the most potent strains of this miracle plant. Best Treatment Centers For Opiate Addiction our kratom is prepared by experienced specialists in the purest and most effective forms. We have processed our signature strains into fine powder and capsules for your convenience and enjoyment.

Review by Robert H. Since I have been a fan of kratom for a few years now I have been looking for an extract that is strong enough for me because most of them have been very disappointing. I liked

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this extract the best and will be back for more.

It can be grown outdoors year-round in many parts of Southern California Florida and Hawaii. Elsewhere it should be grown in a pot so that it can be overwintered indoors. Kratom grows well at room temperature and makes a fine houseplant.

I alternate between Mmm Speciosa (MS) and The Kratom King (TKK). Both are located in the Austin TX area and I like to support local business whenever I can. Classic Bali or Baik Bali from MS or PC Bali from TKK.

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Bali has been the most consistently beneficial variety of kratom for me. I tend to try different combinations but always end up coming back to injecting kratom tincture west bethesda Bali.

Hello all this is Gina. I have made several posts on the previous blog page. Perhaps Rob you could somehow get this post over there so Coby will see it. He had inquired twice about the company Quick Kratom. I placed an order with them 2 weeks ago after reviewing their site.

Certain parties have urged the government to penalize the use of kratom under the Dangerous Drugs Act instead of the Poisons Act which will carry heavier penalties. On February 28 2014 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced an import alert for Kratom issuing guidance that shipments are to be seized without physical examination from several vendors listed due to concerns that there is no evidence that Kratom does not pose an unnecessary risk of illness or injury. Due to kratom not being on the banned plants list nor being a synthetic kratom is still legal in Indiana.

I started wondering why I was even taking it. I felt like I was dying. It is an honorable thing to do and is appreciated even if sometimes people forget to mention that fact.

I ordered the sample pack(7 different strains 9 grams each). They had a deal buy 2 get one free so I ended up getting a total of 189 grams for around 38 dollars. Hoping the quality is good.

We offer amazing tier prices for people who buy more than a little. Teabags filled with a de-veined de-stemmed blend of Indo Thai and Maeng Da kratom of the red- and white vein varieties. The Indo Maeng Da kratom is a white-vein Kratom classic that comes from the nutrient rich jungles of Indonesia. Malaysian kratom powder. An absolute classic. You have no items in your shopping cart.

Your website is very helpful. Travis from Solle Solutions is a great and trustworthy vendor and has good products. Kratom Underground is the companies name sorry.

Nearly all kratom use is by chewing fresh leaves. Some villagers use the leaves in cooking. August 3 1943. One ounce of extract is punishable by death

  • Error! Please try again
  • The chemical structure of mitragynines incorporate the nucleus of the tryptamine and these may be responsible for the molecules which are observed in the serotonin and adrenergic systems
  • I alternate between Mmm Speciosa (MS) and The Kratom King (TKK)

. The mind is described as calm. Inspired by traditional use H.

Many people use kava as a natural alternative to prescription anti-anxiety drugs such as benzodiazepines and tricyclic antidepressants. Kavalactones are the primary active constituents of the plant. This highly concentrated extract contains 70% kavalactones.

Some people prefer to let the paste dissolve under their tongue kratom and loperamide for opiate withdrawals spring grove because the effects devolp more quickly–in just 5-10 minutes!) The duration of effects can be extended by taking additional doses periodically when the effects of the previous dose begin to subside. Refrigeration gives the extract a firmer texture that is easier to dispense. Kava can dramatically increase the kratom and alcohol hangover effects of alcohol especially when taken at larger doses so please be careful when combining the two.

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Individuals who have lost energy or are seriously exhausted can regain the lost energy by simply taking

<img mitragyna parvifolia uses uno src=’http://www.ilovekratom.com/images/bonafidekratom.png’ alt=’Best Treatment Centers For Opiate Addiction’>

this wonder leaf. Best Treatment Centers For Opiate Addiction it’s also instrumental in lowering blood pressure and also treats or reduces the effects of diarrhea. Individuals who are undergoing depression or are in some form of stress will also find this drug instrumental. Questions abound as to how this particular herbal leaf can be used to reduce allergy symptoms. Going by the numerous benefits that this drug has there is no denying that individuals who are suffering from any kind of allergic conditions can experience relief from taking it. In order to reduce allergy symptoms you need to ensure that the drug is taken in a controlled way. What this basically means is that kratom should not be over used or taken in large doses.

It is in the same loved ones as the coffee plant. The therapeutic effects of Kratom have been known for hundreds of years among the natives of these areas and are actually becoming too known within this country. The therapeutic effects of

kratom are wide-ranging. In smaller amounts it has an invigorating maeng da thai kratom powder white vein wilmer effect keeping the mind focused and providing energy while at the same time preventing that jittery feeling that comes from other stimulating plants. It will enable the user to focus on the task at hand and be far less distracted while feeling fully awake and alert.

Because it is thick and creamy it is a popular choice for freezing and using to make tasty treats. It is creamy and thick which makes it ideal for using with a machine. You can use a Best Treatment Centers For Opiate kratom nightmares Addiction regular ice cream maker or a frozen yogurt machine to make this delicious dessert. Freeze the container portion of the maker in the freezer until it is completely frozen.

An infusion of kratom tea at the analgesic level can last 6-8 hours while giving the patient a feeling of well-being and calm that they will not get with traditional pharmaceuticals. Many people who suffer from chronic pain have discovered kratom as an alternative to narcotic pain medication. There may be some nausea when the kratom is kratom laws tennessee grover taken at this level but generally if one lies down that will pass. There may also be some initial sweating and pupil dilation but again this will pass.

If you want to take it as a tea or in some other way the recommendation for the first time is to take about 7 grams no more. After some time you can use more doses. You can even check the reviews on various websites.

You may order Kratom online at kratomlounge.com. Choose from powdered leaf extract Best Treatment Centers For Opiate Addiction supplement form for the proper doses to meet your needs. Each product description kratom rising sun review comes with information on how to use the herb. No longer are the secrets of health energy and vitality hidden in jungles of Southeast Asia. Best Treatment Centers For Opiate Addiction Instead you can enjoy the benefits for use right in your own home. ?Kratom is an excellent treatment for depression. It has been proved to enable the user forget all his/her problems and concentrate on the future.

This attention has also brought with it a flood of researchers eager to discover new natural compounds that could be used in the treatment of disease. Traditional methods of taking Salvia Divinorum have included chewing (also known as the quid method) smoking or by consuming an alcohol-based tincture. The dry leaves of this plant can be smoked kratom salem nh directly with a variety of milder effects.

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I became an IV drug user. Best Treatment Opiate Addiction not long after that I found myself with a felony drug charge and on the verge of homelessness. My tolerance went way up on this right away. I was ingesting about 2 oz per week.

However due to the side effects I was going to stop until I read your article. However it was NIGHTMARE straining the stuff borneo red vein thai kratom through a

Best Treatment Opiate Addiction

coffee filter. Took me like 2 hours and I had to keep changing filters as they stopped up after one use. I solved my own problem. I used unbleached muslin to strain it through and it worked wonderfully.

I did find these though. Hope it helps. That is not dead which can eternal lie. And with strange aeons even death may die.

They are strong addictive and just like taking large doses of narcotics. Below are the products I have used and enjoyed. I have used 8 different strands of Kratom and I have taken exhaustive notes each time I have used Kratom.

Irrelevant to me but maybe relevant to men of weak character. I never will be. Addiction is for the weak of will and I have zero sympathy for addicts of any kind.

Pictured: Kratom tea. On the left is the first tea we cooked. On the right is the twice cooked tea which mitragyna speciosa – bali kratom powder for some reason always has a rich deep dark and terrific color.

We use 100% organic kratom in all of our products as well as offering high quality kratom extracts capsules and Best Treatment Opiate Addiction tinctures. We have strict guidelines on natural high quality Kratom and never harvest young sick or immature trees. This allows us to give you our quality guarantee on every order. If you have any questions just let us know via the contact us form. We are here to help and make your online experience second to none in product quality and the service you deserve.

Kratom has become a recognizable industry standard among kratom products. The main difference between Kratom O. Kratom products has to do with how the alkaloids are extracted from the leaves. Most products employ a method involving hot water or a solvent. Under this process the Kratom leaves are basically boiled out of the organic material. Research specialists have recently discovered a more effective extraction method using cold water and high pressure.

I mssed it but it looks like wisewolf already posted the resin poppy tea vs kratom bradley tek. The first time i took 10 -15mg of the kratom resin and made it into a tea (tastes disgusting). Very much like opium effects (very dream like state). I also like the extracts. It definately effects people differently.

I was wondering if you could please tell me what type this is. You also wrote that most Kratom on the market is lousy. Is it possible for you to provide me with an on-line provider that is not lousy. I am also most interested in the tinctures mitragyna inermis nmr or liquid? as I have cancer and having a lot of issues with nasea and vomiting.

Felt disorganized in a way. As if my works quantity went up but the quality went down. I had an overspill accident on my scale one day and used 15 grams. That day I definitely felt high (I assume never been high before). Test bloats I want to be dry as a bone so I dropped the test. I will be August 4th.

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So any help or advice would be greatly appreciated. As for your question. I then soon after started taking Subs. Best Treatment Opiate Addiction North Arlington i have 2 kids (2yr 1yr) and another kid on the way.

I also ordered some red vein thai crushed leaf from iamshaman. I used the coffee grinder to powder it and then made tea adding a little lemon juice before bringing to a boil and steeping. THIS stuff did not disappoint very relaxing and a light body buzz. Going to place an order with mmm specios and bouncing bear botanicals now will report back. Also going to try Coastal Kratom as they are located in my backyard. Thanks for sharing.

I recently tried out a new vendor whose prices and kratom we. Add your side of the story and take the time to be articulate and thoughtful. Punctuation grammar and t.

TTI they sent me the wrong product and then admitted in the email they sent the wrong product because of mislabeling. TTI i ordered 100grams for mmmspeciosa. Thanks for the information! I would say though that some strains are more potent than

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others.

Many of our customers use it to manage their chronic pain. It is not for the faint hearted. You can feel and smell the quality as soon as you open it.

Sungold is definitely great but I would still go with gold reserve. Also forgot to mention Isol8 which is another fantastic one. Unfortunately SpeciosaPro is not accepting new customers at the moment so you should go through HerbResearch.

Journal of analytical toxicology 35(4) 242-247. The Malaysian Insider. October 28 2012. mitragyna speciosa malaysia bivins Kiley Brendan (2012-04-10).

These extracts are sold at a price that is too high for most individuals and actual potency from Best Treatment Opiate Addiction North Arlington one vendor to the next and one batch to the next is completely kratom 15x dosage unpredictable. Additionally there could be a concern regarding the purity of the extract and a question regarding unknown additives within the product. There is a big caution to consider when speaking of extracts. The majority of cases that can be read online where someone has developed a Kratom addiction or some other possible health concern has been the direct result of frequent use of extracts.

Review by Randy H. I am so glad they Best Treatment Opiate Addiction North Arlington started offering extract I have been waiting for this. A friend told me about Zen and said I had to try it. I tried it and then ordered 6 more! Thanks Kratom Divine. Kratom Divine is the premier internet shop to buy organic specialty Kratom

  1. I ran into some financial issues and had no choice but to go with a cheaper place
  2. Bulletin on Narcotics Vol
  3. Kratom Pills) and exactly what they are
  4. Despite their claims of potency taking my usual amount results in very little effects
  5. Asian Mitragynas are often found in rainforests while the African species are often found in swamps
  6. Help forums for merchantcircle
  7. The content of this website is intended for an adult audience ONLY
  8. But where to buy the best Kratom extracts online? capsule is proud to offer the best extracts from the most reputable growers

. We offer many different strains of Kratom in both powder and capsules that include Maeng Da Premium Bali Sama Sama and other strains.

Bikhuk because if your recommendations as well. I did with the kratom kings product. And to anyone else .

All product is bulk material in specific amounts for convenience only.Most important publications of Chittrakarn S. We use the fluid option here to avoid overriding the fixed width of a normal container within the narrow content columns. Quantitative analysis of mitragynine codeine caffeine chlorpheniramine and phenylephrine in a kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth. The neuromuscular blockade produced by pure alkaloid mitragynine and methanol extract of kratom leaves (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.

Now selling at amazing discounts when bought in higher quantities. This is an extremely popular green-vein strain from Malaysia. Highly what is the strongest kratom capsules manville sought after for its amazing aroma and pervasive character. Order our amazing sample pack to figure out which types of kratom you find preferable. Our sample package contains 7 different classic kratom strains. The Vietnamese strain offers all the qualities that one can expect from a red vein kratom.

Florida Drug RehabDrug Rehab Centers In FloridaDrug Rehab Centers In FloridaDrug Rehab nj . What to expect . A new FBI study based on the most recent national statistics from up to 2011 found that marijuana redosing kratom franklin furnace arrests have remained at an all-time high with 749824 .

Fly Agaric Mushroom (Amanita) 12. Has anyone used extract produ. All about kratom goes here its responsible usage its effects benefits etc. Please do not post vendor talk and other promotional things and do keep it constructive.

Did enjoy tea made from some extract leaf powder. Avatar art created by unknown Cambodian or Laotian. Everything else is fiction. Hmm swim thinks swim may have done it wrong too. He bought the extract and smoked it.

We never cut the Kratom for easier filling and nothing is added. Our kratom comes in a simple labeled bottle and most of our business is from word of mouth which saves you money. FREE Ounce of the same strain.

I want a good energizing strain and am currently buying about a kilo per month. Thanks for the feedback. Thanks for checking this dinky little page out.

Root extracts against a lung cancer cell line (COR-L23) Activity of extracts and alkaloids of Thai Alstonia species against human lung cancer cell lines Quantitative analysis of mitragynine codeine caffeine chlorpheniramine and phenylephrine in a kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth. IPI UJI EFEK SEDATIF EKSTRAK n-HEKSAN DARI DAUN KRATOM (Mitragyna speciosa Korth. UJI EFEK SEDATIF EKSTRAK n-HEKSAN DARI DAUN KRATOM (Mitragyna speciosa Korth. Insomnia is a sleep disorder that can cause a variety of serious health problemsrequiring treatment. The using of synthetic drugs have buy kratom leaves uk dangerous side effects than therapywhich is resulted.

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Clonogenicity assay of MSE with rat S9 treated A) SH-SY5Y and B)HEK 293 cells for 24 hr with MSE in the presence of Arochlor 1254-induced rat liver s9. ANOVA with Tukey-Kramer post test. Best Treatment Centers For Opiate Addiction Oro Valley a1 1A2 2A6 2E1 3A4 and human epoxide hydrolase (Crespi et al 1991).

Bcl-2 family also comprise anti-apoptotic members such as Bcl-2 Bcl-XL Bcl-W Bfl-1 and Mcl-1 which act as suppressors for cytochrome c release and the action of these proapototic and antiapoptotic members depends on their balance (Reed 1997; Ghobrial et al 2005). The maeng da kratom dose activation of Bcl-2 members such as Bax may cause an increase of mitochondrial membrane permeability thus releasing cytochrome c and also second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (SMAC) or inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) into cytosol. Cytochrome c will react with APAF-1 (apoptosome) and together with IAP will activate the initiator caspase 9. Active caspase 9 will activate the downstream caspases 3 6 and 7 for cells to execute apoptosis (Ghobrial et al 2005) (refer to fig. Final execution: Caspases pathway As described above in the two main pathways caspases which belong to cycteine proteases family play important roles in the initiating and executing what is kratom grasscity sharon the final apoptosis events.

Other well known assays includes MTT assay kratom legal uk (3-(45-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-25diphenyltetrazolium bromide) which is a metabolic assay in which tetrazolium salt is metabolised by mitochondrial dehydrogenase enzyme to form dark blue formazan in living cells. Therefore the level of colorimetric detection of formazan is proportional to the number of surviving cells (Mosman 1983). A longer Best Treatment Centers For Opiate Addiction Oro Valley term assessment for determining the capability of cells to retain the capacity for proliferating after treatment with cytotoxic agents is the clonogenicity assay. Principally this colony formation assay is a survival based assay to see the ability of single cells to form a colony that contains at least 50 cells (Ansah et al 2004). As a protease family caspases play an important role in initiation and execution of apoptosis therefore in vitro assessment using these enzymes as a marker of apoptosis is essential in apoptosis research (Lavrik et al 2005).

SPE and the eluant was collected in a glass vial. The SPE column was then washed with 2% formic acid (4. Finally the SPE was eluted with 5% ammonia in acetonitrile: methanol (1:1) (4. The MSE fractions obtained were analysed for MIT-like The maximum compound by UV-VIS spectroscopy (WPA lightwave II). MIT was determined. A standard curve was generated using synthetically pure MIT from which the MIT content in MSE fractions was estimated.

DED a CYP 2A6 inhibitor also gave some protection against MSE and MIT toxicity but was not effective as ATZ. M of ATZ for 48 hr treatment. Cell viability was assessed using Trypan blue exclusion.

The mixture of methanol and the leaves were filtered and the filtrate was dried using a rotary evaporator. The crude methanol extract obtained appeared greasy with a dark green colour. The crude methanol extract was re-dissolved in 300 ml chloroform and the mixture was transferred into a separating funnel.

The trypan blue exclusion assay using trypan blue dye is a

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reliable inexpensive and common test for viability (Puranam and Boustany 1998; Perry et al 1997). The principle of using this dye is that viable cells will exclude the dye and remain clear or white whereas the non-viable cell will take up the dye and thus stain blue when visualised under microscopic examination. The cells which have lysed plasma membrane such as in
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late apoptosis are permeable to dye (Puranam and Boustany 1998). FITC (fluorescein isothiocyanate) or PI (Vermes et al 1995) or 7-AAD (7Amino-actinomycin D) (Schmid et al 1992). Other in vitro cytotoxicity assays which assess the biochemical activity of damaged cells include lactate dehydrogenase assay (LDH) which in principle measures the release of lactate dehydrogenase enzyme during pathological states such as cell injury due to chemical insults (Legrand et al 1992).